英国留学论文引用格式Harvard Referencing使用攻略

Harvard Referencing音译为哈佛引用格式,是欧洲、澳洲大学社会人文学科最常见的论文格式。根据Harvard体系,每一个引文,无论直接还是间接,都应分别在两处注明:在文中引用处注明;在全书或全文最后的参考书目(bibliography)处注明。哈佛格式有两种形式:一是Author-Date系统,一种是脚注系统。其中Author-Date系统更为常见,下面详细介绍。

 

(一)文内引用

 

文中的引文通常包括作者的姓名(仅姓氏)和出版年份。此信息通常包含在文中引用部分之后的括号内。例如:

Gatsby’s infatuation with Daisy is often revealed in the story, often in simple phrases such as, “… he turned toward her with a rush of emotion” (Fitzgerald, 2004).

如果文本中已经给出了原作者的姓名,则括号中只需要包含出版年份即可。例如:

Fitzgerald’s use of “old sport” throughout the novel suggests that Gatsby considered Nick Carraway a close friend (2004).

如果是直接的引用或者是对某一页具体的内容进行了引用,还需要给出具体的页码,这样读者可以找到引用部分所在的特定位置。例如:

Knapper and Cropley (1991: p. 44) believe that the willingness of adults to learn is affected by their attitudes, values and self-image and that their capacity to learn depends greatly on their study skills.

如果作者是两位或者是三位时,需要列出所有作者的姓氏。当有多位作者时,通常会给出第一作者的姓氏,然后加上“et al.”。例如:

“A range of values can express emotion, too. Stark, high-contrast drawings may carry a strong emotional charge” (Lazzari and Schleiser, 2011).

“Rather than constantly seeking approval from others, try to seek approval from the person who matters the most – yourself” (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt, 2011).

Potter et al. (2013) go on to explain that “among the most Catholic Filipinos, parents keep the newborn inside the home until after the baptism to ensure the baby’s health and protection.”

对于口头陈述类文献,比如讲座,引用格式通常与已发表的作品完全相同,并应提供演讲者的姓名和演讲日期。例如:

Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks (Barker, 1996).

如果引用的想法或信息是个人对话,如与讲师或导师的讨论,则引用格式举例如下:

The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance (Maria Lorenzini, pers. comm.).

“Pers. comm.”是“personal communication”的缩写,在引用中如此标记即可,无需给出多余的信息。

如果无法找到作者信息,则只需要在括号中包括文本标题即可。例如:

Lisa wasn’t scared, she was simply shocked and caught off guard to notice her father in such a peculiar place (Lost Spaces, 2014).

(二)参考文献列表

 

使用哈佛格式时,所有引用的参考文献必须包含完整的出版物详细信息,并按照作者姓氏的字母顺序排列。

如果同一个作者有多个文献,则按照日期先后顺序排列;如果作品是在同一年,则按照标题的字母顺序排列,并且在文内引用括号内用字母标注(a, b,c)。

1.书籍引用

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. (Only include the edition if it is not the first edition) City published: Publisher, Page(s).例如:

Dahl, R. (2004). Charlie and the chocolate factory. 6th ed. New York: Knopf.

Vermaat, M., Sebok, S., Freund, S., Campbell, J. and Frydenberg, M. (2014). Discovering Computers. Boston: Cengage Learning, pp.446-448.

从上例可以看出,引用的文献信息应该包括:作者的姓氏和名字或缩写;出版日期;书名;出版地;出版商的名称。

注意书名应该使用斜体。当引用的书籍有多位作者时,在文献列表中应该列出所有作者的名字。这一点需要和文内引用作区分。

2.期刊文章

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Journal, Volume (Issue), Page(s).例如:

Ross, N. (2015). On Truth Content and False Consciousness in Adorno’s Aesthetic Theory. Philosophy Today, 59(2), pp. 269-290.

Dismuke, C. and Egede, L. (2015). The Impact of Cognitive, Social and Physical Limitations on Income in Community Dwelling Adults With Chronic Medical and Mental Disorders. Global Journal of Health Science, 7(5), pp. 183-195.

由此可见,需要包括期刊的名称和期刊号,而不需要包含出版商和出版地。另外,使用斜体的应该是书名和期刊名,而不是文章标题。

3.网页引用

互联网越来越多地被用作信息来源,参考互联网资源与参考印刷资源同样重要。与印刷资源相比,互联网上的信息变化迅速,网址有时候会发生变化甚至无法访问。因此,在引用网页时,需要包含网页的作者(可能是个人、团体或组织)、页面发表日期(大多数网页的日期位于页面底部)、标题、网页地址,以及访问网页的日期。

Last name, First initial (Year published). Page title. [online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].

如果没有列出网页作者,则使用以下的格式:

Website name, (Year published). Page title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].例如:

Messer, L. (2015). ‘Fancy Nancy’ Optioned by Disney Junior. [online] ABC News. Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/fancy-nancy-optioned-disney-junior-2017/story?id=29942496#.VRWbWJwmbs0.twitter [Accessed 31 Mar. 2015].

Mms.com, (2015). M&M’S Official Website. [online] Available at: http://www.mms.com/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].

4.讲座引用

完整引用未发表的口头陈述,通常需要包括演讲者的姓名、讲座日期、讲座名称或讲座系列以及地点。例如:

Barker, G. 1996 (7 October): The Archaeology of Europe, Lecture 1. University of Leicester.

5.毕业论文

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Dissertation title. Academic Level of the Author. Name of University, College, or Institution.例如:

Shaver, W. (2013). Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing. PhD. Yeshiva University.

以上是Harvard Referencing哈佛引用格式的具体规范,在论文内容完善的基础上,格式也必须按照规定整理,只有这样才不会产生扣分的可能。

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