英国社会学essay代写 相对贫困

相对贫困是指家庭收入比一般家庭收入少50%,因此他们确实有一些钱,但仍然没有足够的钱来支付除了必需品以外的任何东西。这种形式的贫穷是根据国家的财政增长而改变的(人类住区,北德)。许多社会学家认为,从生活方式的角度来讨论贫困是必要的。人们认为,当社会中的个人被排斥在他们所属社区的生活方式之外时,贫困也会发生。汤森对相对贫困进行了几项研究。他认为贫穷不仅仅是缺乏物质资源。镇代替将贫困定义为“个人、家庭和团体在贫困人口可以说是当他们缺乏资源获得的饮食类型,参与活动,和已经习惯的生活条件和设施,或者至少广泛鼓励或批准,在它们所属的社会。它们的资源严重低于一般个人或家庭所掌握的资源,因此它们实际上被排除在一般的模式、习俗和活动之外”(Townsend, 1979年)。为了将他对贫困的定义付诸实践,汤森德设计了一个贫困指数。每个家庭都被给予了一个关于贫困的分数,分数越高,这个家庭遭受的贫困就越多。他的结论是,那些生活在基本补充水平150%以下的人正遭受贫困。汤森德根据不同的家庭情况调整收入,例如,孩子的年龄和家庭中的残疾成员,因为他所遵循的过程,他觉得可以声称他的数字和定义是科学和客观的。汤森的研究受到了一些批评,其中最大的批评来自大卫·皮亚肖。他说汤森德没有考虑人民的选择。如果有人选择成为素食主义者或选择呆在家里,在剥夺指数中他们将被归类为生活在贫困中,而实际上这是一种生活方式的选择。

英国社会学essay代写 相对贫困

Relative poverty is when households receive 50% less than typical household incomes, so they do have some money but still not enough money to afford anything more than the essentials. This form of poverty is, changed depending on the financial growth of the state (Habitat for Humanity, n.d). Many sociologists have reasoned that it is necessary to debate poverty in terms of life styles. It is thought that poverty also occurs where individuals of society are excluded from the lifestyle of the community to which they are a part of .Townsend carried out several studies of relative poverty. He believed that poverty extended beyond a simple lack of material resources. Town stead defines poverty as ‘‘Individuals, families and groups in the population can be said to be in poverty when they lack the resources to obtain the types of diet, participate in the activities, and have the living conditions and amenities which are customary, or at least widely encouraged or approved, in the societies to which they belong. Their resources are so seriously below those commanded by the average individual or family that they are, in effect, excluded from ordinary patterns, customs and activities’’ (Townsend, 1979). In order to put his definition of poverty into operation, Townsend devised a deprivation index. Each household was given a score on deprivation, the higher the score the more the family suffered deprivation. He concluded that those living on less than 150% of basic supplementary levels were suffering from poverty. Townsend adjusted the income based on different family situations, for example, age of children and disabled members of the family because of the process he had followed he felt able to claim his figures and definition were scientific and objective. There was some criticism to Townsend’s research the biggest one was made by David Piachaud. He stated that Townsend has not considered people’s choice. If someone chose to be vegan or choose to stay at home, in the deprivation index they would be classed as living in poverty when in truth it was a lifestyle choice.

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