英语作文Harvard referencing style风格,论文写作中Harvard引用完全指南

通过 Reference,你可以为你的指导老师展示你阅读了大量的相关材料,并且一个格式正确的 Reference也可以帮助你避免复制。通常,直接引用会被直接视为抄袭吗?但目前不做标注间接使用他人思想和理论也算抄袭。所以,掌握 Harvard所引用的技巧是非常重要的,这里100 due根据学霸的经验,将 Harvard英文引用的相关指南整理出来,供学生参考。

 

基础知识必备:

  • Citation:对文章的直接和间接引用的统称。
  • Reference::将本文中使用的所有文献,摘要归类,以 list的形式列出,放置在文末。
  • Bibliography:除了 reference之外,还包括你读过的其他相关书籍和资料,但没有在文章中引用。

不同的学科对于英文引用格式的要求也有所不同。例如,心理学学科用APA,电子工程学科用IEEE,法律学科用OSCOLA,医药学科用Vancouver,化学学科用RSC。而Harvard 格式相对来说更通用,这里我们也只专门介绍Harvard引用的方法。

注意: Harvard Style以下所提到的“作者”全部为作者的姓氏,而“年份”则为书籍资料的出版年份。

一、 Citation

Citation是对文章的直接和间接引用的统称,这里100due分别介绍下直接引用和间接引用的注意事项。

1、直接引用

直接引用通常需要使用双引号将引用内容括起来,在句尾用括号标明作者、日期和页码。如网上资源没有页码,可省略

比如: “Language is subject to change, and is not caused by unnecessary sloppiness, laziness or ignorance” (Aitchison, 1981, p.67).

若引用内容多于两行,段落由冒号引出,一段引的段落要离前文有一定距离,一般要空一行。左右要适当缩进,字体要略微变小,注明作者、年份和页码

比如:One answer to this is that language has always been subject to change, just as everything else in the world is, and we should not feel that this is a bad thing. As Aitchison (1981, p.16) puts it:

Language, then, like everything else, gradually transforms itself over the centuries. There is nothing surprising in this. In a world where humans grow old, tadpoles change into frogs, and milk turns into cheese, it would be strange if language alone remained unaltered. In spite of this, large numbers of intelligent people condemn and resent language change, regarding alterations as due to unnecessary sloppiness, laziness or ignorance.

Aitchison clearly sees every change in language as neither good nor bad, but inevitable…

本章引述内容的思路不变,同学们可在引用原文中进行小范围修改。

  • 省略:许多时候,想引用一段很长的短文的开始和结尾,那么中间不相关的内容就可以用省略号…代替。注意:引用的开始和结束都不能用省略号代替。
  • 加字:如果你想要把原文中的一些内容替换为你自己的文字,替换后的文字就要用方括号[]括起来。
  • 错误:如果原文有拼写错误、日期错误等,不能随意修改,也可以在错误的地方加上(sic)。sic是拉丁文“原文如此”的意思。
  • 重点:如果一段中的某一句话或某一个词和你的论据非常恰当,可以用斜体标出,并指出你要强调的是你自己。相反,如果原文中有斜体的词或句子,请在文章末尾说明,斜体系原创,不能添加。

例子1:Language changes are natural and inevitable. It has been argued that language:

Language, then, like everything else, gradually transforms itself over the centuries. In a world where [everything changes], it would be strange if language alone remained unaltered. In spite of this, large numbers of intelligent people condemn and resent language change (Aitchison, 1981, p.16, my italics).

案例2:According to Smith (1992, p.45), “Aitcheson [sic] appears to believe that everything changes; but this is questionable” (italics in original).

2、间接引用

间接引用不如直接引用那么明显,它的行文更加流畅。有两种间接引用的表达方式,一种是 xxx指示…;一种没有提到原作者,但你间接地引用了一个概念或理论。两者都只需注明作者和年份。

比如:Biggs and Smith (2012) offer a convincing argument…

Ramirez (2010), Schneider (2011) and Roberts (2013) discuss the challenges faced by…

There seems to be a correlation between students’ use of the library and high degree marks (Stone and Collins, 2012)

建议:

两位作者

若此书为两位作者所著,则两人应以姓氏注明。比如:

Jones and Baker (2011) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

超过三名作者(包括三名)

一般只需写出作者的名字,然后“et al.”例如:

Jones et al. (2011) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

组织

假如本书由一家公司、一所大学、一家政府机构撰写,成员可能超过 N,此时只需注明组织的名称。例如

According to a recent report, flu jabs are as important as travel vaccines (Department of Health, 2011).

书本

一般而言,大家被鼓励寻找最原始的材料,但不免会有一些作者引用其他作者的内容。例如在 A的书里提到 B的理论,你要引用 B的理论,那就用姓 B,年份加上 A的姓、年和页码。例如

It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones, 1998, cited in Carol, 2001, p.9).

异名作者异名

按年份的新旧排序,用分号分隔。比如:

It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Roberts, 2005; Smith et al., 1998).

若两年正好相同,则按姓A-Z排序。比如:

It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Salmon, 2001; Andrews et al., 1998; Jones and Baker, 1998).

同一年,同作者来源不同

通常 a、 b、 c是在年份之后加以区别的。比如:

It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones, 1998a; 1998b).

同姓同姓

为区别不同的作者,通常会加上作者姓名的缩写词。比如:

It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (R.F. Jones, 1998). In a work published later that year, C.B. Jones (1998) proposed that…

年度模糊

有时书籍只有大概的出版日期,可在不明确的年份之前加一本。比如:

Le Sueur (ca. 1648-9) told the story of Alexander the Great in his painting…

无作者

先找出是否有共同著作的作者,如果没有 Anon。

无日期

有些情况下,书籍没有出版日期,只有出版日期,可以在著作日期之前加一个 ca.如果没有作品日期,可以将(nodate)标注。比如:

Jones (no date) emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent.

二、 Reference列表

引用列表是按作者姓名的A-Z顺序排列。

Family names, Initial(s). Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher. 书名斜体

比如:Kane, M. and Trochim, W. 2007. Concept mapping for planning and evaluation. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

O’Riorden, T. ed. 2000. Environmental science for environmental management. 2nd ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

Adams, A.D. 1906. Electric transmission of water power. New York: McGraw.

书籍的章节

Family names, Initial(s). Year. Chapter title. In: Family name, Initial(s) (of editor). ed(s). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers. 书名斜体

Coffin, J.M. 1999. Molecular biology of HIV. In: Crandell, K.A. ed. The evolution of HIV. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, pp.3:40.

网站

Family names, Initial (s). Year. Title [Online].[Date accessed]. Available from: URL文章的斜体标题

DirectGov. 2009. Environment and greener living. [Online]. [Accessed 24 April 2017]. Available from http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Environmentandgreenerliving/

Hawking, S. 2000. Professor Stephen Hawking’s website. [Online]. [Accessed 24 April 2017]. Available from: https://www.excellentdue.com

书面期刊

Family names, Initial (s). Year. Title of article. Journal Title. Volume (issue number), page numbers.期刊标题斜体、期刊卷数粗体

Pajunen, K. 2008. Institutions and inflows of foreign direct investment: a fuzzy-set analysis. Journal of International Buisness Studies. 39(4), pp.652-669

Schiermeier, Q. 2009. G8 climate target questioned. Nature. 460(7253), p313.

电子期刊

Family names, Initial (s). Year. Title of article. Journal Title.[Online]. Volume (issue number), page numbers.[Date accessed]. Available from: URL期刊标题斜体、期刊卷数粗体

EI Gharras, H. 2009. Polyphenols: food sources, properties and applications- a review.International Journal of Food Science & Technology. [Online]. 44(12), pp.2512-2518. [Accessed 24 April 2017]. Available from: https://assignment1st.net

引用列表的 FAQ

多名作者

使用 and连接两个作者。理论上,有两个以上作者的名字应该全部写出来,但也有一些学校让学生用” etal”来代替,因此建议学生先和导师沟通。

Family names, Initial(s). and Family name, Initial(s). Year. Title. Edition(if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Ahmed, T. and Meehan, N. 2012. Advanced reservoir management and engineering. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Gulf Professional Publishing.

编辑

若此书为编辑册而非作者亲笔,请注明其编辑资料。

Family names, Initial(s) (of editor). ed.  Year. Title. Edition(if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Crandell, K.A. ed. 1999. The evolution of HIV. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

出版

英国多家出版社只要把第一本列出来就行了,多个国家的出版社只要列一本英国的出版社就行了。

情报缺失

不带日期的名称后面加上[无日期]

Jones, M. [no date]. Citations and referencing. London: Longmans, Green and Co.

发表年代不明确,可用 ca。

Le Sueur, E. ca. 1648-9. Alexander and his Doctor. London: National Gallery. NG6576.

不带页码,最后加上[无 pagination].

Pajunen, K. 2008. Institutions and inflows of foreign direct investment: a fuzzy-set analysis. Journal of International Business Studies. 39(4), [no pagination].

如果没有出版商或出版商,则需要标注[no publisher]或[noplace]。

网站链接

可以保留所有的 slash,如果网页链接超过一行,那么只需要截取第一个 slash/。